Children more willing to punish if the wrongdoer is ‘taught a lesson’ — ScienceDaily

Many children are willing to make personal sacrifices to punish wrongdoers — and even more so if they believe punishment will teach the transgressor a lesson, a new Yale study published Nov. 23 in the journal Nature Human Behaviour shows.

Philosophers and psychologists have long argued whether the main reason people punish others for bad behavior is to enact retribution or to impart a moral lesson. In adults, most studies show the answer is that people have both motives. But what about children, who are less steeped in societal values?

“Children are less exposed to social ideas about how to behave in certain ways,” said first author Julia Marshall, who conducted the research in the lab of Molly Crockett, assistant professor of psychology at Yale and senior author of the paper. “We wanted to know if children are interested in punishing others because they want wrongdoers to pay, because they

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Largest aggregation of fishes in abyssal deep sea — ScienceDaily

The largest aggregation of fishes ever recorded in the abyssal deep sea was discovered by a team of oceanographers from the University of Hawai’i at Manoa (UH, USA), Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI, USA) and the National Oceanography Centre (NOC, UK). Their findings were published recently in Deep-Sea Research.

“Our observations truly surprised us,” said Astrid Leitner, lead author on the study, who conducted this work as graduate researcher in the UH Manoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST). “We had never seen reports of such high numbers of fishes in the sparsely-populated, food-limited deep-sea.”

The researchers, including Leitner, Jennifer Durden (NOC) and professors Jeffrey Drazen (Leitner’s doctoral research advisor) and Craig Smith, made the observation on an expedition to the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ). The CCZ is a large region stretching nearly from Hawai’i to Mexico, which is being explored for deep sea mining of

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Direct visualization of quantum dots reveals shape of quantum wave function — ScienceDaily

Trapping and controlling electrons in bilayer graphene quantum dots yields a promising platform for quantum information technologies. Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have now achieved the first direct visualization of quantum dots in bilayer graphene, revealing the shape of the quantum wave function of the trapped electrons.

The results, published November 23 in Nano Letters, provide important fundamental knowledge needed to develop quantum information technologies based on bilayer graphene quantum dots.

“There has been a lot of work to develop this system for quantum information science, but we’ve been missing an understanding of what the electrons look like in these quantum dots,” said corresponding author Jairo Velasco Jr., assistant professor of physics at UC Santa Cruz.

While conventional digital technologies encode information in bits represented as either 0 or 1, a quantum bit, or qubit, can represent both states at the same time due to quantum superposition. In theory,

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Galaxy encounter violently disturbed Milky Way — ScienceDaily

The spiral-shaped disc of stars and planets is being pulled, twisted and deformed with extreme violence by the gravitational force of a smaller galaxy — the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

Scientists believe the LMC crossed the Milky Way’s boundary around 700 million years ago — recent by cosmological standards — and due to its large dark matter content it strongly upset our galaxy’s fabric and motion as it fell in.

The effects are still being witnessed today and should force a revision of how our galaxy evolved, astronomers say.

The LMC, now a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, is visible as a faint cloud in the southern hemisphere’s night skies — as observed by its namesake, the 16th century Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan.

Previous research has revealed that the LMC, like the Milky Way, is surrounded by a halo of dark matter — elusive particles which surround galaxies and

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Researchers overcome barriers for bio-inspired solar energy harvesting materials — ScienceDaily

Inspired by nature, researchers at The City College of New York (CCNY) can demonstrate a synthetic strategy to stabilize bio-inspired solar energy harvesting materials. Their findings, published in the latest issue of Nature Chemistry, could be a significant breakthrough in functionalizing molecular assemblies for future solar energy conversion technologies.

In almost every corner of the world, despite extreme heat or cold temperature conditions, you will find photosynthetic organisms striving to capture solar energy. Uncovering nature’s secrets on how to harvest light so efficiently and robustly could transform the landscape of sustainable solar energy technologies, especially in the wake of rising global temperatures.

In photosynthesis, the first step (that is, light-harvesting) involves the interaction between light and the light-harvesting antenna, which is composed of fragile materials known as supra-molecular assemblies. From leafy green plants to tiny bacteria, nature designed a two-component system: the supra-molecular assemblies are embedded within protein or

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New connection between Alzheimer’s dementia and Dlgap2 — ScienceDaily

A gene known for helping facilitate communication between neurons in the nervous system has been discovered to be connected with Alzheimer’s dementia and cognitive decline, according to a national research team led by The Jackson Laboratory and University of Maine.

Catherine Kaczorowski, associate professor and Evnin family chair in Alzheimer’s research at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX), and adjunct professor with the UMaine Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (GSBSE), spearheaded a study to pinpoint the genetic mechanisms that affect resistance or vulnerability to weakening cognition and dementias, such as Alzheimer’s.

Andrew Ouellette, a Ph.D student at JAX and a GSBSE NIH T32 predoctoral awardee, led the project, along with his mentor Kaczorowski and scientists from across the U.S.

By studying the memory and brain tissue from a large group of genetically diverse mice, the team found that the expression of the gene Dlgap2 is associated with the degree of

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Genetics behind deadly oat blight — ScienceDaily

A multi-institution team co-led by a Cornell University researcher has identified the genetic mechanisms that enable the production of a deadly toxin called Victorin — the causal agent for Victoria blight of oats, a disease that wiped out oat crops in the U.S. in the 1940s.

Victoria blight is caused by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, which produces the Victorin toxin, but until now no one has uncovered the genes and mechanisms involved.

“The oat varieties favored by farmers in the 1940s were resistant to Crown Rust disease, but scientists later discovered this was the very trait that made those oat varieties susceptible to Victoria blight because the Victorin toxin was targeting that specific plant protein,” said co-senior author Gillian Turgeon, professor and chair of the Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section of the School of Integrative Plant Science, in Cornell’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS). “Unearthing the molecules

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the eyes have it — ScienceDaily

The insulation around nerve cell components in our corneas have unique properties, and little is known about them. But UConn School of Medicine neuroscience professor Royce Mohan believes his lab is on the verge of uncovering a path to better understanding that ultimately could lead to several vision-preserving advances.

Learning more about the cellular environment in the cornea, including what are known as glial cells that wrap around the nerve cell’s axons, could have implications for healing after surgeries and corneal transplants, as well as nerve regeneration, not just in the eyes but potentially in other systems of the body.

In a paper published in the Journal of Neuroscience Research, lead author Paola Bargagna-Mohan, assistant professor of neuroscience, details a method of characterizing every cell in the cornea using an approach known as single-cell RNA sequence analysis to answer questions about the cornea’s healing process. The study was done

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Global warming likely to increase disease risk for animals worldwide — ScienceDaily

Changes in climate can increase infectious disease risk in animals, researchers found — with the possibility that these diseases could spread to humans, they warn.

The study, conducted by scientists at the University of Notre Dame, University of South Florida and University of Wisconsin-Madison, supports a phenomenon known as “thermal mismatch hypothesis,” which is the idea that the greatest risk for infectious disease in cold climate-adapted animals — such as polar bears — occurs as temperatures rise, while the risk for animals living in warmer climates occurs as temperatures fall.

The hypothesis proposes that smaller organisms like pathogens function across a wider range of temperatures than larger organisms, such as hosts or animals.

“Understanding how the spread, severity and distribution of animal infectious diseases could change in the future has reached a new level of importance as a result of the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a pathogen which appears

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As wind energy scales up, researchers study the fluid dynamics challenges — ScienceDaily

Twenty years ago, wind energy was mostly a niche industry that contributed less than 1% to the total electricity demand in the United States. Wind has since emerged as a serious contender in the race to develop clean, renewable energy sources that can sustain the grid and meet the ever-rising global energy demand. Last year, wind energy supplied 7% of domestic electricity demand, and across the country — both on and offshore — energy companies have been installing giant turbines that reach higher and wider than ever before.

“Wind energy is going to be a really important component of power production,” said engineer Jonathan Naughton at the University of Wyoming, in Laramie. He acknowledged that skeptics doubt the viability of renewable energy sources like wind and solar because they’re weather dependent and variable in nature, and therefore hard to control and predict. “That’s true,” he said, “but there are ways

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