AI tool could help clinicians provide more effective COVID-19 intervention — ScienceDaily

With communities across the nation experiencing a wave of COVID-19 infections, clinicians need effective tools that will enable them to aggressively and accurately treat each patient based on their specific disease presentation, health history, and medical risks.

In research recently published online in Medical Image Analysis, a team of engineers demonstrated how a new algorithm they developed was able to successfully predict whether or not a COVID-19 patient would need ICU intervention. This artificial intelligence-based approach could be a valuable tool in determining a proper course of treatment for individual patients.

The research team, led by Pingkun Yan, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, developed this method by combining chest computed tomography (CT) images that assess the severity of a patient’s lung infection with non-imaging data, such as demographic information, vital signs, and laboratory blood test results. By combining these data points, the algorithm is

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Technology lets clinicians objectively detect tinnitus for first time — ScienceDaily

A technology called functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can be used to objectively measure tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, according to a new study published November 18 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Mehrnaz Shoushtarian of The Bionics Institute, Australia, and colleagues.

Tinnitus, the perception of a high-pitched ringing or buzzing in the ears, affects up to 20% of adults and, when severe, is associated with depression, cognitive dysfunction and stress. Despite its wide prevalence, there has been no clinically-used, objective way to determine the presence or severity of tinnitus.

In the new study, researchers turned to fNIRS, a non-invasive and non-radioactive imaging method which measures changes in blood oxygen levels within brain tissue. The team used fNIRS to track activity in areas of the brain’s cortex previously linked to tinnitus. They collected fNIRS data in the resting state and in response to auditory and visual stimuli in 25

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New findings could provide a tool for people with bipolar disorder and clinicians to predict relapse and intervene in a timely manner — ScienceDaily

Relapse in people with bipolar disorder can be predicted accurately by their tendency towards having pessimistic beliefs, according to a study published today in eLife.

The results could provide an urgently needed tool for doctors to predict upcoming relapse and provide timely treatment.

Bipolar disorder is characterised by successive periods of elation (mania) and depression, interspersed with asymptomatic phases, called euthymia. People who have shorter periods of asymptomatic euthymia are more likely to suffer disability, unemployment, hospitalisation and increased suicidal feelings. However, predicting relapses using existing clinical diagnostic tools or demographic information has proven largely ineffective in bipolar disorder.

“It is already known that people with depression tend to give negative information more weight than positive information, leading to pessimistic views that may make symptoms worse,” explains lead author Paolo Ossola, Research Fellow at the Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy. “We wanted to test the

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Clinicians’ antibiotic-prescribing patterns can impact patients’ future antibiotic use

Receiving an initial antibiotic prescription for a viral acute respiratory infection–the type of infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotics–increases the likelihood that a patient or their spouse will seek care for future such infections and will receive subsequent antibiotic prescriptions, according to the findings of a study from Harvard Medical School and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The analysis, published online August 10 in Clinical Infectious Diseases, is believed to be the first to measure how variation in clinicians’ antibiotic-prescribing patterns impacts patients’ care-seeking behavior and antibiotic use in the long term.

The findings are alarming because they suggest that once such prescriptions are given improperly for a viral infection they could become a gateway to more antibiotic use, the researchers said. Overuse of antibiotics is common. Previous studies have shown that nearly a quarter of antibiotics prescribed

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Clinicians who prescribe unnecessary antibiotics fuel future antibiotic use — ScienceDaily

Receiving an initial antibiotic prescription for a viral acute respiratory infection — the type of infection that doesn’t respond to antibiotics — increases the likelihood that a patient or their spouse will seek care for future such infections and will receive subsequent antibiotic prescriptions, according to the findings of a study from Harvard Medical School and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The analysis, published online August 10 in Clinical Infectious Diseases, is believed to be the first to measure how variation in clinicians’ antibiotic-prescribing patterns impacts patients’ care-seeking behavior and antibiotic use in the long term.

The findings are alarming because they suggest that once such prescriptions are given improperly for a viral infection they could become a gateway to more antibiotic use, the researchers said. Overuse of antibiotics is common. Previous studies have shown that nearly a quarter of antibiotics prescribed in an outpatient setting

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