Oral drug blocks SARS-CoV-2 transmission, researchers find — ScienceDaily

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a new antiviral drug, MK-4482/EIDD-2801 or Molnupiravir, completely suppresses virus transmission within 24 hours, researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University have discovered.

The group led by Dr. Richard Plemper, Distinguished University Professor at Georgia State, originally discovered that the drug is potent against influenza viruses.

“This is the first demonstration of an orally available drug to rapidly block SARS-CoV-2 transmission,” said Plemper. “MK-4482/EIDD-2801 could be game-changing.”

Interrupting widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 until mass vaccination is available is paramount to managing COVID-19 and mitigating the catastrophic consequences of the pandemic.

Because the drug can be taken by mouth, treatment can be started early for a potentially three-fold benefit: inhibit patients’ progress to severe disease, shorten the infectious phase to ease the emotional and socioeconomic toll of prolonged patient isolation and rapidly silence local outbreaks.

“We noted early on that MK-4482/EIDD-2801

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New insights into protein structures could help inform drug development and predict future outbreaks — ScienceDaily

Some animals are more susceptible to Covid-19 infection than others, and new research suggests this may be due to distinctive structural features of a protein found on the surface of animal cells. João Rodrigues of Stanford University, California, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS Computational Biology.

Previous research suggests that the current pandemic began when the virus that causes Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, jumped from bats or pangolins to humans. Certain other animals, such as cattle and cats, appear to be susceptible to Covid-19, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. One zoo even reported infections in tigers. However, it was unclear why some animals are immune and others are not.

To address this question, Rodrigues and colleagues looked for clues in the first step of infection, when SARS-CoV-2’s “spike” protein binds to an “ACE2” receptor protein on the surface of an animal cell. They

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FDA launches pilot program to help reduce and replace animal testing in drug development

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched Innovative Science and Technology Approaches for New Drugs (ISTAND), a pilot program that will help reduce and replace animal testing as part of drug development. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has worked toward this goal for several years by meeting with the FDA and Congress and providing expert input, hosting Congressional briefings, and leading drug development stakeholders in advocating for a pathway for the approval of nonanimal, human-biology based drug testing methods.

The FDA launched ISTAND to expand its ability to qualify drug development tools that are outside the scope of the FDA’s existing Drug Development Tools Qualification Program (DDT). The DDT program excluded the vast majority of nonanimal in vitro and computational approaches. Before ISTAND, if a drug developer wanted to use a human biology-based approach, it would only be reviewed and accepted on a case-by-case basis. The

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Drug development target for retinal dystrophies — ScienceDaily

A team of LSU Health New Orleans researchers reports for the first time that deleting one of the inhibitors of the RPE65 gene in a mouse model that carries a human disease mutation prevents degeneration of cone photoreceptors that are used for daytime high-resolution color vision. Their findings are published in PNAS available here.

More than 100 DNA variants in the RPE65 gene are reported as pathogenic mutations causing retinal degenerative diseases. They include a group of inherited childhood blinding diseases called Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). While a new gene therapy may improve vision for some with RPE65 gene mutations, there is currently no effective therapy that arrests progressive retinal degeneration in LCA.

Previously, the researchers identified three inhibitors of RPE65. The one involved in the current study is called fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4). They found that the survival of cone photoreceptors is increased nearly 10-fold in the

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Warning signs over effectiveness of HIV ‘wonder drug’ in sub-Saharan Africa — ScienceDaily

Dolutegravir, the current first-line treatment for HIV, may not be as effective as hoped in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests new research published on World AIDS Day. The study finds that this so-called ‘wonder drug’ may be less effective in patients resistant to older drugs.

As HIV copies itself and replicates, it can develop errors, or ‘mutations’, in its genetic code (its RNA). While a drug may initially be able to supress or even kill the virus, certain mutations can allow the virus to develop resistance to its effects. If a mutated strain begins to spread within a population, it can mean once-effective drugs are no longer able to treat people.

HIV treatment usually consists of a cocktail of drugs that includes a type of drug known as a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). However, in recent years, HIV has begun to develop resistance to NNRTIs. Between 10% and 15% of patients in

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DeepMind’s improved protein-folding prediction AI could accelerate drug discovery

The recipe for proteins — large molecules consisting of amino acids that are the fundamental building blocks of tissues, muscles, hair, enzymes, antibodies, and other essential parts of living organisms — are encoded in DNA. It’s these genetic definitions that circumscribe their three-dimensional structures, which in turn determines their capabilities. But protein “folding,” as it’s called, is notoriously difficult to figure out from a corresponding genetic sequence alone. DNA contains only information about chains of amino acid residues and not those chains’ final form.

In December 2018, DeepMind attempted to tackle the challenge of protein folding with a machine learning system called AlphaFold. The product of two years of work, the Alphabet subsidiary said at the time that AlphaFold could predict structures more precisely than prior solutions. Lending credence to this claim, the system beat 98 competitors in the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) protein-folding competition in Cancun, where

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Scientists design model to predict cellular drug targets against COVID-19 — ScienceDaily

A computational model of a human lung cell has been used to understand how SARS-CoV-2 draws on human host cell metabolism to reproduce by researchers at the University of Warwick. This study helps understand how the virus uses the host to survive, and enable drug predictions for treating the virus to be made.

Viruses rely on their host to survive, a crucial step of lifecycle is the synthesis of the virus particles within the host cell, therefore understanding this process is key to finding ways to prevent the virus from surviving.

Using a computer model of a human lung cell metabolism, scientists from the School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick have captured the stoichiometric amino and nucleic acid requirements of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. Publishing their results in the paper, ‘Inhibiting the reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 through perturbations in human lung cell metabolic network’, in the

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Hepatitis C Drug Market 2020 Trends, Size, Growth Insight, Share, Emerging Technologies, Share, Competitive, Regional, And Global Forecast To 2026

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Nov 26, 2020 (The Expresswire) —
Global“Hepatitis C Drug Market”(2020-2026) status and position of worldwide and key regions, with perspectives of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report analyses the topmost companies in worldwide and main regions, and splits the Hepatitis C Drug market by product type and applications/end industries.The Hepatitis C Drug market trend research process includes the analysis of different factors affecting the industry, with the government policy, competitive landscape, historical data, market environment, present trends in the market, upcoming technologies,technological innovation, and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, market barriers,opportunities, and challenges.

Get a sample PDF of the report athttps://www.360researchreports.com/enquiry/request-sample/15633913

The global Hepatitis C Drug market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2020 and 2026. In 2020, the

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EU fines drug makers for keeping cheap medicine off market

Boxes of tablets, produced by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries.

Chris Ratcliffe | Bloomberg | Getty Images

The European Union has fined two pharmaceutical companies for colluding to keep a cheap alternative to a sleep disorder medicine off the market for their profit and at the expense of patients.

EU antitrust commissioner, Margrethe Vestager, said that Teva pharmaceuticals and Cephalon, a company it later acquired, must pay 60.5 million euros ($72 million) for agreeing between themselves to delay for years the launch of Teva’s cheaper version of Cephalon’s blockbuster Modafinil. In return for the delay, Teva got beneficial side deals and some payments.

Vestager said that “Teva’s and Cephalon’s pay-for-delay agreement harmed patients and national health systems, depriving them of more affordable medicines.”

Modafinil treats excessive daytime sleepiness and under the brand name Provigil it accounted for more than 40% of Cephalon’s turnover. A cheap alternative would have had a serious impact

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Experimental evolution reveals how bacteria gain drug resistance — ScienceDaily

A research team at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan has succeeded in experimentally evolving the common bacteria Escherichia coli under pressure from a large number of individual antibiotics. In doing so, they were able to identify the mechanisms and constraints underlying evolved drug resistance. Their findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Communications, can be used to help develop drug-treatment strategies that minimize the chance that bacteria will develop resistance.

Counteracting multidrug-resistant bacteria is becoming a critical global challenge. It seems that every time we develop new antibiotics, novel antibiotic-resistant bacteria emerge during clinical use. To win this cat-and-mouse game, we must understand how drug resistance evolves in bacteria. Naturally, this process is very complicated, involving numerous changes in genome sequences and cellular states. Therefore, a comprehensive study of resistance dynamics for large numbers of antibiotics has never been reported.

“Laboratory evolution combined with

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