Norepinephrine release to cells is diminished, causing cascade of effects — ScienceDaily

In a new paper, researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio) report brain chemistry that may contribute to why drinkers have difficulty paying attention while under the influence.

The work is funded by generous support from the Robert J. Kleberg, Jr. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation and by grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute of Mental Health. Findings were published Dec. 2 in Nature Communications.

“When we want to focus on something, or when we stand up from a chair and become active, a brain stem nucleus releases a chemical called norepinephrine. Acute exposure to alcohol inhibits this signal in the brain,” said senior author Martin Paukert, MD, assistant professor of cellular and integrative physiology at UT Health San Antonio. When attention is needed for a task, norepinephrine is secreted by a brain

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How are older adults coping with the mental health effects of COVID-19? Analysis reveals resilience in many individuals and what factors may be driving it — ScienceDaily

Older adults are especially vulnerable to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic — with higher risks of severe complications and death, and potentially greater difficulties accessing care and adapting to technologies such as telemedicine. A viewpoint article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association notes that there’s also a concern that isolation during the pandemic could be more difficult for older individuals, which could exacerbate existing mental health conditions. Information gathered over the past several months suggests a much more nuanced picture, however.

“Over the spring and summer of 2020, we were struck by a number of individual studies from all over the world that reported a consistent theme: Older adults, as a group, appeared to be withstanding the strains on mental health from the pandemic better than all other age groups,” said lead author Ipsit Vahia, MD, medical director of the Geriatric Psychiatry Outpatient Services and the

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Don’t worry about side effects: Rigidity is the problem

Simple advice to innovators and policymakers: Don’t worry about collateral needs or they will distort your good growth and policy efforts.

If we look back, the development of the automobile had collateral effects beyond the ability of the auto pioneers to conceive. Yet there were those who would have restricted automobile development because they worried about the collateral effects, including that there wouldn’t be enough gasoline, oil would run out, cars were dangerous and the fuel stations would explode.

The lesson wasn’t that those were minor concerns, but that they were giant and reasonable concerns that didn’t take into account that there would be as much creativity in solving those problems as there was in creating the primary product in the first place.

If the Wright brothers had worried about how we would keep aircraft from colliding with each other,

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New insights on health effects of long-duration space flight — ScienceDaily

The historic NASA Twins Study investigated identical twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly and provided new information on the health effects of spending time in space.

Colorado State University Professor Susan Bailey was one of more than 80 scientists across 12 universities who conducted research on the textbook experiment; Mark remained on Earth while Scott orbited high above for nearly one year. The massive effort was coordinated by NASA’s Human Research Program.

Bailey has continued her NASA research and now joins more than 200 investigators from dozens of academic, government, aerospace and industry groups to publish a package of 30 scientific papers in five Cell Press journals on Nov. 25.

Jared Luxton, who recently received his doctoral degree in cell and molecular biology at CSU, is the first author of two of the studies. He is now a data scientist with the United States Department of Agriculture in Fort Collins.

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Wildlife movements offer window on climate change effects

Stephen Lewis sees a golden eagle flying over Mount Sentinel and feels the whole Arctic Circle exhale.

That eagle might be one he radio-collared while working in Alaska’s Denali National Park. The collar traces the bird’s migration path between the Arctic and the Lower 48 states. That trace entwines with about 50 other eagles the wildlife biologist has collared for his U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study. And that study now joins hundreds of other research projects from around the planet in a new Arctic Animal Movement Archive.

When all those radio-collared eagles, caribou, whales, wolves and other critters get their travels animated on a computer map, it looks like the whole Northern Hemisphere is breathing in and out.

“I have a couple hundred-thousands of location points for eagles,” Lewis, who’s working on a doctorate degree at the University of Montana, told the Missoulian. “With the archive, we have

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Spill-over effects show prioritizing education of very poorest improves attainment of all — ScienceDaily

International development projects that target the education of the world’s very poorest children and marginalised girls also significantly improve other young people’s attainment, according to new research that suggests such initiatives should become a priority for international aid.

The newly-reported study, by academics at the University of Cambridge, is one of the first to measure the complete value that interventions targeting poor and marginalised children also have for many of their peers, principally through ‘spill-over’ effects which improve the wider education system.

The team tested their model by analysing a programme by CAMFED (the Campaign for Female Education) in Tanzania, which supports the education of disadvantaged girls. They took into account its impact not just on those girls, but on other children at schools where their programme operates. Strikingly, for every $100 spent per girl, per year, the programme resulted in learning gains equivalent to an additional two years of

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2020’s Impact on Consumer Tech Adoption Will Have Long-Term Effects

For consumers and businesses alike, inertia can be a very powerful force when it comes to how much they do or don’t use various tech products and services.

The spirit behind the old mantra that no one ever got fired for buying IBM is relevant to a whole lot of activity. Human nature being what it is, quite often individuals and organizations stick with a product, service or behavior pattern without giving any serious consideration to alternatives, simply because they’re used to going about things one way and have deemed it to be an acceptable way of doing things.

All of that matters a lot when gauging the long-term effects of a year such as this one on consumer activity. A year in which consumers have been either forced or strongly incentivized to abandon a lot of age-old behaviors — and to embrace alternatives — for everything from how they

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Scientists have uncovered a method of combining natural organic compounds which can create anticancer drugs with minimal side effects — ScienceDaily

In the past decades, cancer has surpassed many other diseases to become the current second leading cause of death globally, with one in six people dying from it. This concerning position has given it a unique and ubiquitous position in global culture, so much so that finding a cure for cancer is considered one of the most noble things any person can do. Sadly, humanity hasn’t arrived at this cure yet; tons of research is being conducted to explore every angle of cancer, trying to find a weakness.

A group of scientists from the Tokyo University of Science, led by Prof Kouji Kuramochi, has also been dedicated to this mission. In their search for a weapon against cancer, they turned to a specific set of organic compounds called “phenazines.” Phenazines are a large group of nitrogen-containing “heterocycles” (or compounds with a ring structure composed of at least two different elements).

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Patients taking statins experience similar side effects from dummy pills — ScienceDaily

People taking dummy pills and statins experienced similar side effects in a new study.

In a clinical trial of 60 patients, led by researchers at Imperial College London and clinicians at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, 90 per cent of symptoms experienced by patients whilst taking statins were all present when they took placebo pills.

Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the UK, with around seven or eight million adults in the UK taking them. They help lower cholesterol in the blood. Having a high cholesterol level is potentially dangerous as it can cause hardening and narrowing of the arteries, leading to cardiovascular disease.

Previous studies have shown that, in certain people, statins reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and even death from heart disease by about 25-35 per cent. Most people tolerate statins but it is estimated that around one fifth of patients stop

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Warm, moist rivers of air may have continent-wide effects and influence climate change — ScienceDaily

Warm, moist rivers of air in Antarctica play a key role in creating massive holes in sea ice in the Weddell Sea and may influence ocean conditions around the vast continent as well as climate change, according to Rutgers co-authored research.

Scientists studied the role of long, intense plumes of warm, moist air — known as atmospheric rivers — in creating enormous openings in sea ice. They focused on the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean near Antarctica, where these sea ice holes (called polynyas) infrequently develop during the winter. A large hole in this area was first observed in 1973 and a hole developed again in the late winter and early spring of 2017.

In the first study of its kind, published in the journal Science Advances, scientists found that repeated strong atmospheric rivers during late August through mid-September 2017 played a crucial role in forming the

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