What makes certain groups more vulnerable to COVID-19? Researchers look to animals to find clues in proteins involved in infection — ScienceDaily

What makes the elderly and people with underlying conditions more vulnerable to COVID-19? According to a new study led by McGill University researchers, clues can be found in the proteins involved in initiating infection, as the virus binds to host cells of different animals. Greater cellular oxidation with aging and sickness may explain why seniors and people with chronic illness get infected more often and more severely.

Over 60 million people have been infected and around 1.5 million have died from COVID-19. The virus is disrupting economies and food supply chains all over the world. Understanding why some animals get infected and others do not could be the key to unlocking new treatments and therapies. In a study published in Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, researchers analyzed available protein sequences of the virus and host cell receptors across different spices to find out why.

“We know that the virus can

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Research reveals how a fungal infection activates inflammation — ScienceDaily

Scientists at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have identified the mechanisms behind inflammasome activation driven by infection with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungal infection, especially with A. fumigatus, is a leading cause of infection-associated deaths in people with compromised immune systems. The work provides clues to a potential therapeutic approach for treating infectious and inflammatory disorders. The findings were published online today in Nature.

“Inflammasomes are important sentinels of an organism’s innate immune defense system,” said corresponding author and founding member of the inflammasome field Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Ph.D., of the St. Jude Immunology department. “Our prior work showed that fungal pathogens activate the inflammasome, but the exact mechanism of action for inflammasome engagement was unknown.”

To understand these mechanisms for A. fumigatus, the scientists looked for pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which can stimulate the innate immune response by activating the inflammasome. The scientists focused on NLRP3, the most-studied inflammasome

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New lab-on-a-chip infection test could provide cheaper, faster portable diagnostics — ScienceDaily

The chip, developed at Imperial College London and known as TriSilix, is a ‘micro laboratory’ which performs a miniature version of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the spot. PCR is the gold-standard test for detecting viruses and bacteria in biological samples such as bodily fluids, faeces, or environmental samples.

Although PCR is usually performed in a laboratory, which means test results aren’t immediately available, this new lab-on-a-chip can process and present results in a matter of minutes.

The chip is made from silicon, the same material that is used to make electronic chips. Silicon itself is cheap, however, it is expensive to process into chips which requires massive, ‘extremely clean’ factories otherwise known as cleanrooms. To make the new lab-on-chip, the researchers developed a series of methods to produce the chips in a standard laboratory, cutting the costs and time they take to fabricate, potentially allowing them to be

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Time to rethink predicting pandemic infection rates? — ScienceDaily

During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, Joseph Lee McCauley, a physics professor at the University of Houston, was watching the daily data for six countries and wondered if infections were really growing exponentially. By extracting the doubling times from the data, he became convinced they were.

Doubling times and exponential growth go hand in hand, so it became clear to him that modeling based on past infections is impossible, because the rate changes unforeseeably from day to day due to social distancing and lockdown efforts. And the rate changes differ for each country based on the extent of their social distancing.

In AIP Advances, from AIP Publishing, McCauley explains how he combined math in the form of Tchebychev’s inequality with a statistical ensemble to understand how macroscopic exponential growth with different daily rates arise from person-to-person disease infection.

“Discretized ordinary chemical kinetic equations applied to infected, uninfected,

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Lung-on-chip provides new insight on body’s response to early tuberculosis infection — ScienceDaily

Scientists have developed a lung-on-chip model to study how the body responds to early tuberculosis (TB) infection, according to findings published today in eLife.

TB is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and most often affects the lungs. The model reveals that respiratory system cells, called alveolar epithelial cells, play an essential role in controlling early TB infection. They do this by producing a substance called surfactant — a mixture of molecules (lipids and proteins) that reduce the surface tension where air and liquid meet in the lung.

These findings add to our understanding of what happens during early TB infection, and may explain in part why those who smoke or have compromised surfactant functionality have a higher risk of contracting primary or recurrent infection.

TB is one of the world’s top infectious killers and affects people of all ages. While it mostly

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Urinary Tract Infection Therapeutics Market Application, Technology, Trends and Opportunities Forecasts to 2022

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Nov 24, 2020 (AmericaNewsHour) —
Kenneth Research published a report on ‘URINARY TRACT INFECTION THERAPEUTICS MARKET’ recently which gives a comprehensive insight into the current Urinary Tract Infection therapeutics Market environment. The report provides an in-depth analysis of the Urinary Tract Infection therapeutics Market on the basis of size, volume, and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) during the forecast period, i.e., 2020-2022.

According to WHO, the true state of health of a population is revealed by Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE). HALE not only considers the number of years a person lives, but also if they lived in good health. Between 2000 and 2016, HALE increased globally from 59 years to 63 years which is a growth of 8%. Around USD 7.5 trillion is spent globally on healthcare each year and to achieve targets for primary health care,

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Study reveals how smoking worsens COVID-19 infection in the airways — ScienceDaily

UCLA researchers using a model of airway tissue created from human stem cells have pinpointed how smoking cigarettes causes more severe infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the airways of the lungs.

The study, led by scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA and published in Cell Stem Cell, will help researchers better understand COVID-19 risks for smokers and could inform the development of new therapeutic strategies to help reduce smokers’ chances of developing severe disease.

Cigarette smoking is one of the most common causes of lung diseases, including lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and most demographic studies of COVID-19 patients have indicated that current smokers are at increased risk of severe infection and death. But the reasons why have not been entirely clear.

To help understand how smoking affects SARS-CoV-2 infection on a

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Infection prevalence among university students was lower than in the surrounding community, case study finds — ScienceDaily

An aggressive COVID-19 surveillance and testing effort at Duke University was highly effective in minimizing the spread of the disease among students on campus, according to a case study appearing in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

The successful Duke campaign was launched before the start of the semester. Ahead of arriving on campus, all enrolled students were required to self-quarantine for 14 days, sign a code of conduct pledge to obey mask-wearing and social distancing guidelines and have a COVID test.

Once classes started, the university conducted regular surveillance testing using pooled samples to conserve resources, daily symptom self-monitoring, contact tracing with quarantine, and regular testing for those who were symptomatic or had been exposed to someone with COVID-19.

The result: The average per-capita infection prevalence among students was lower than in the surrounding community, and large outbreaks seen on other campuses were avoided. Overall, combined testing

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Global Respiratory Infection Diagnostic Market to 2025 – by Technology, Plex, Place and by Region

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Nov 17, 2020–

The “Respiratory Infection Diagnostic Markets by Technology, Plex, Place and by Region with COVID-19 Impact & Forecasting/Analysis, and Executive and Consultant Guides 2021-2025” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering.

COVID-19 has broken open the market for point of care testing of respiratory infections. Now the competition for market share begins in earnest. Large new markets are opening up. In health facilities, clinics, physicians’ offices and elsewhere. And let’s not forget the screening market, not just for COVID, but for the rest of the 20 something respiratory pathogens as well. Multiplex vs single plex? Explore the rapidly changing market as competitors jockey for position in new markets that are not yet well understood.

New technology is forever changing the diagnosis of respiratory infections. Shrinking time to result is opening up markets multiple times the size of current microbiology based practice. Diagnosis has already moved into the

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A new study finds nurses have the highest prevalence of infection — ScienceDaily

Health care workers — particularly nurses — have a higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection than non-health care workers, according to researchers at Rutgers, which released baseline results from a large prospective study of participants at Rutgers and affiliated hospitals recruited during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The study, published in the journal BMC Infectious Diseases, found that in early spring, the participants most likely to test positive for COVID-19 were nurses, workers taking care of multiple patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and those who worked in a hospital with a higher proportion of infected patients.

As of Nov. 15, 2020, according to the CDC, there were more than 216,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases among health care workers in the United States, leading to at least 799 deaths. The Rutgers study evaluated 546 health care workers with direct patient exposure at two New Jersey hospitals and 283 non-health

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