Rutgers-led study sheds light on subsurface melting of thick ice billions of years ago — ScienceDaily

The most habitable region for life on Mars would have been up to several miles below its surface, likely due to subsurface melting of thick ice sheets fueled by geothermal heat, a Rutgers-led study concludes.

The study, published in the journal Science Advances, may help resolve what’s known as the faint young sun paradox — a lingering key question in Mars science.

“Even if greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor are pumped into the early Martian atmosphere in computer simulations, climate models still struggle to support a long-term warm and wet Mars,” said lead author Lujendra Ojha, an assistant professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University-New Brunswick. “I and my co-authors propose that the faint young sun paradox may be reconciled, at least partly, if Mars had high geothermal heat in its past.”

Our sun

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Repurposed mouse model sheds light on loss of smell in COVID-19 — ScienceDaily

A repurposed mouse model can develop symptoms of both severe COVID-19 (lung damage, blood clots, abnormal blood vessels, and death) and also of milder disease, including loss of the sense of smell, according to a recent University of Iowa study published in Nature.

The study also showed that convalescent plasma from a patient who had recovered from COVID-19 protected the mice against lethal disease. The findings suggest the K18-hACE2 mouse model is useful for understanding a spectrum of COVID-19 disease symptoms, and for developing and testing new treatments.

When COVID-19 started spreading across the world earlier this year, UI researchers Stanley Perlman, MD, PhD, and Paul McCray, MD, realized that a mouse model they had created a decade earlier to study SARS might be an invaluable tool for understanding the concerning new disease and for testing potential treatments.

In the new study, Perlman, McCray, and colleagues present a detailed characterization

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Safe ultraviolet light could be used to sterilize high-risk COVID-19 environments — ScienceDaily

Research at Cranfield University is paving the way for a new solution to kill aerosolised COVID-19 in enclosed environments such as hospitals and long-term care facilities.

Computational modelling has shown that low dose far-ultraviolet C (UVC) lighting can be used to disinfect in-room air, increasing disinfection rates by 50-85% compared to a room’s ventilation alone.

Unlike typical UVC — which has been used to kill microorganisms for decades but is extremely harmful to humans, potentially causing cataracts or skin cancer — evidence has shown that far-UVC is safe to use around people.

Dr Liang Yang, Lecturer in Marine Renewable Energy Systems in the Centre for Renewable Energy Systems, Cranfield University, said: “In indoor environments where it may not be possible to socially distance, aerosolised coronavirus released through breathing increases the chance of spreading the disease. Infection controls focus on a combination of personal hygiene and the correct use of personal

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LAMOST-Kepler/K2 survey announces the first light result

LAMOST-Kepler/K2 survey announces the first light result
Fig.1 Kepler telescope. Credit: NASA

An international team led by Prof. Fu Jianning and Dr. Zong Weikai from Beijing Normal University released the first light result of medium-resolution spectroscopic observations undertaken by the LAMOST-Kepler/K2 Survey. The study was published in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series on Nov. 12.


The result demonstrated that the medium-resolution spectrographs on LAMOST performed to the designed expectation.

The LAMOST-Kepler/K2 Survey was launched based on the success of the LAMOST-Kepler project, a low-resolution spectroscopic survey that consecutively performed since 2011.

Different from LAMOST-Kepler project, the LAMOST-Kepler/K2 Survey aims to collect time-series spectroscopies with medium resolution on about 55,000 stars distributed on Kepler and K2 campaigns, with higher priority given to the targets with available Kepler photometry.

Each of those input targets will be visited about 60 times during the period from September 2018 to June 2023. This project is allocated with one-sixth of the entire time within

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Light Weapons Market is estimated to reach $18.3 billion by 2025; growing at a CAGR of 6.5% from 2020 to 2025

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

New York, United States, Sat, 28 Nov 2020 14:00:47 / Comserve Inc. / — Light weapons are designed for use by two or three persons helping as a team, though some may be carried and used by a single individual.

Global Light Weapons Market is estimated to reach $18.3 billion by 2025; growing at a CAGR of 6.5% from 2017 to 2025. Light weapons are designed for use by two or three persons helping as a team, though some may be carried and used by a single individual. It includes heavy machine guns, portable anti-aircraft guns, portable launchers of anti-tank missiles & rocket systems, hand-held under-barrel & attached grenade launchers, recoilless rifles, portable anti-tank guns, portable launchers of anti-aircraft missile systems, and mortars of caliber of less than 100 millimeters.

Change in nature of warfare, arming of

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Earth is 2,000 light years closer to the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole than previously thought

A new map of the Milky Way created by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan shows Earth is spiraling faster and is 2,000 light years closer to the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy than was previously thought. 

In 1985, the International Astronomical Union announced that Earth was 27,700 light years away from the black hole, named Sagittarius A*. But a 15-year analysis through Japanese radio astronomy project VERA found that the Earth is actually only 25,800 light years away. They also found that Earth is moving 7 km/s faster than they previously believed.

Sagittarius A* and black holes of the like are dubbed “supermassive” for a reason — they are billions of times more massive than the sun. 

But the NAOJ said there is no need to worry, as the latest data does not indicate the planet is “plunging towards the black hole.” It just means

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Earth just got 2,000 light years closer to Milky Way’s supermassive black hole

20201126-mizusawa-fig

Earth is a little closer to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way than we believed.


NAOJ

At the centre of the our galaxy there’s a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A*. It has a mass roughly 4 million times that of our Sun.

Great news! It turns out scientists have discovered that we’re 2,000 light years closer to Sagittarius A* than we thought.

This doesn’t mean we’re currently on a collision course with a black hole. No, it’s simply the result of a more accurate model of the Milky Way based on new data.

Over the last 15 years, a Japanese radio astronomy project, VERA, has been gathering data. Using a technique called interferometry, VERA gathered data from telescopes across Japan and combined them with data from other existing

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Warning light panels to be mandatory on F1, MotoGP circuits

High-tech warning light panels are to be rolled out across all Formula 1 and MotoGP tracks from 2022 as part of a new safety initiative.



Richard Burns taking a selfie in a dark room


© Marlboro Peugeot Total
Richard Burns

The lights have already become a regular in F1, with the extra marshalling indicators being used to help bolster the more traditional warning flags.

They are used to indicate a wealth of information beyond the usual flag signals, including weather status updates, safety or virtual safety car deployment and if the pitlane is closed.

At the moment, the light panels are transported from race-to-race by F1’s promoter, so are not permanent fixtures at tracks.

However, following discussions between the governing bodies of motor racing (FIA) and motor cycling (FIM), a plan has been agreed for tracks to now be required to install the light panels themselves.

This means that the safety levels used almost exclusively in F1 will now

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Rathbones’ Jackson reassesses ‘vulnerable’ defensive holdings in light of Covid-19

Alexandra Jackson of the Rathbone UK Opportunities fund

Alexandra Jackson of the Rathbone UK Opportunities fund

Covid-19 has forced Alexandra Jackson to “rethink” her definition of defensive stocks.

The manager of the £41.4m Rathbone UK Opportunities fund said while she had no “great new definition” yet, healthcare and telco stocks still had defensive qualities, while technology companies are becoming “more utility-like”.

“We have had to rethink a little bit our definition of defensive in the past year. If you cannot go into the gym or into a bar, it is just not that defensive.

“We went through an exercise in July/August of looking through the fund and trying to work out which companies were vulnerable to rolling lockdowns because we thought we could see that coming, from the experiences of Asia and the US.” 

Coronavirus Blog: Gilead shares slide as WHO questions its Covid treatment’s efficacy

One of the “worst offenders” on that basis was low-cost

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Remote control of heat nanosources motion and thermal-induced fluid flows by using light forces

Remote control of heat nanosources motion and thermal-induced fluid flows by using light forces
a, Multiple gold NPs (spheres of 200 nm radius) are confined by a ring-shaped laser trap (wavelength of 532 nm) and optically transported around it. These NPs rapidly assemble into a stable group of hot particles creating a confined heat source (G-NP) of temperature ~500 K. Free (not trapped) gold NPs acting as tracer particles are dragged toward the G-NP by the action of the thermal-induced water flow created around it (see Video S5 of the paper). The speed of the G-NP is controlled by the optical propulsion force which is proportional to the phase gradient strength tailored along the laser trap as displayed in b, corresponding to the transport state 1. This non-uniform propulsion force drives the G-NP reaching a maximum speed of 42 μm/s. b, Sketch of the switching of the phase gradient configuration (state 1 and 2) enabling a more sophisticated manipulation of the heat source: split
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